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Initiated in 1986 Genomics is the DNA (Dioxy ribonucleic Acid) sequencing of organisms. This sequence can further be deciphered and their functions are defined.This knowledge base would not only allow us to understand molecular process but can also revolutionize agriculture, medicine and many aspects of engineering.

It would also bring a tea change in information and technology. The complete DNA sequence of an entire genome was first published in 1981, of circular DNA of Human Mitochondrion, composing of 16,159 letters. One can imagine the work involved in this project as human genome has 3 billion genomes one to be decodes by the end of year 2000.

There are two broad categories of genomics.
(a) Comparative Genomics
(b) Functional Genomics


Genomics face two major challenges before going any further on. Number one, there are vast number of species, and their sequencing in itself would be non optimal approach. Number two is the fact that within species every individual can carry separate genomes. May be these sequences make difference between Bill gates and the bid who flunked his second grade. The comparison of genomes of the same species comprises this function of genomics. It enables the application of information gathered in studies related to agriculture or medicinal Studies. It is a potent tool to understand the genetic diversity present in one species.